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August 31, 2015

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A pressure transmitter is a pressure sensor, typically for gases or liquids. This pressure sensing device has current output. It can also be defined as an analogue device that produces a charge in voltage or current when the internal pressure changes state. A pressure sensor measures pressure, typically of gases or liquids. Pressure is an expression of the force required to stop a fluid from expanding, and is usually stated in terms of force per unit area. A pressure sensor usually acts as a transducer; it generates a signal as a function of the pressure imposed. For the purposes of this article, such a signal is electrical.Pressure sensors are used for control and monitoring in thousands of everyday applications. Pressure sensors can also be used to indirectly measure other variables such as fluid/gas flow,speed, water level, and altitude. Pressure sensors can alternatively be called pressure transducers, pressure transmitters,

There is also a category of pressure sensors that are designed to measure in a dynamic mode for capturing very high speed changes in pressure. Example applications for this type of sensor would be in the measuring of combustion pressure in an engine cylinder or in a gas turbine.

These sensors are commonly manufactured out of piezoelectric materials such as quartz. Today many measuring principles are used in electronic pressure measurement instruments. Most methods are based on the measurement of a displacement or force. In other words, the physical variable “pressure” has to be converted into an electrically quantifiable variable. Unlike mechanical pressure measuring methods, this conversion requires an external power source for the pressure sensor.

This pressure sensor is the basis of electronic pressure measurement systems. While mechanical gauge element displacements of between 0.004 and 0.012 inches are standard, the deformations in electronic pressure sensors amount to no more than a few microns.

Thanks to this minimal deformation, electronic pressure measurement instruments have excellent dynamic characteristics and low material strain resulting in high resistance to alternating loads and long-term durability.Pressure transducers are an advanced form of the pressure sensor element. The simplest form of an electronic pressure measurement system is the pressure sensor. It is the pressure sensor which changes the physical variable “pressure” into a quantity that can be processed electronically. A pressure transducer is the next level of sophistication. In a pressure transducer, the sensor element and housing are in electrical contact and have a pressure connection.

Typical output signals from pressure transducers [WJ2] are between 10 mV and around 100mV,  depending on the sensor type. These signals are not standardized, however, nor are they compensated. With thin-film type pressure transducers it is customary for just the sensor element to be welded to the pressure connection and then bonded electrically. Piezoresistive pressure transducers, on the other hand, require far more production steps since the semiconductor sensor element has to be protected from the effects of various media by a chemical seal.

Pressure Transmitters

a sub-group of pressure transducers, feature additional reset and calibration options. With some sensor types it is possible, for example, to re-set the measuring span over large ranges. This calibration option is usually referred to by such terms as “scale down”, “span reset” or “turn down”. For instance, a transmitter with a measuring range of 0 to 400 psi and a range reset 1/10 can be calibrate to a measuring range of 0 – 40 psi while still giving a full output signal (4 – 20 mA, for example).

It is also possible to shift the zero point over a wide range and to calibrate the damping of the output signal between 0 and 32 seconds. Smart transmitters such as Hart®, which also have logging capabilities, can be calibrated, tested and reset via the control desk or hand terminals.

Transmitters are often used in process applications where they can be combined with various chemical seals.

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